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Founded by Martin Fishbein in the 1970-s, this theory suggests that people should try to “mould themselves to the world in accordance with their expectations/beliefs and evaluations”. This theory is very useful to explain social behaviors, achievement motivation and work motivation. (Expectancy, 2004) This theory suggests that behavior or behavioral intentions or attitudes evolve out of expectancy and evaluation, where the expectancy is an idea about a situation or object and evaluation is one’s estimation about the impact of that idea/situation/object on any plane.

If the entire team of a workplace can adopt a vision in the light of the Expectancy Value Theory, where they would ‘expect’ that they are devoted to the collective goal. Once armed with this vision, the following areas of communication would definitely take a new turn as the outcome of reorientation of one’s approach to the world. Intrapersonal communication: Here the evaluation system would work on a positive plane, like “I’m attached to an important organ of the society and thus I have more responsibility to meet its expectations” Communication with clients: There will be more patience and interest in communication with the clients;


Team Communication: There would be less conflict of ego or other minor areas of personal interests, as the greater cause will influence all members to align their approach towards the perceived goal (achieving high standards of service). Therefore, the reviewed literatures show that HRM views cross-cultural competence as something that would raise the potential of human capital to the extent that it would be able to successfully guide, govern, handle and exploit a multicultural ambience or workplace to bring the maximum benefit for the company.

For that matter, HRM too accommodates the fact that a methodical training is essential, where the employees should learn theories of communication and human behavior and should take lessons from case studies, besides applying the methods of aligning the potential business prospects with the processes of their desired outcome. Apparently it may seem that culture-learning process is all about systematic listening, reading, speaking and writing of a foreign language, but there is more to it, as it includes systematic study of the social systems and customs of other cultures as well.

Thus, culture learning process is not just an attempt to gather a bird’s eye-view of any culture through its literature or music, but a comprehensive approach to gather the important information associated to another culture, like geographical nature, physical attributes, general health, emotional tendencies, social customs and common approaches relating to sex, gender concept, etc. , along with its religious base and the factors associated with it (Culture).

Knowledge in areas mentioned above enables the professionals to gauge the economic and political foundations and practices of other cultures, which eventually serves as various pointers towards the strengths and weaknesses of other cultures, besides providing better understanding about their social hierarchies. Together all of these enable the professionals to find the right chord of communication in people from other cultures.

In all, culture-learning process tries to inspect and analyse every contributing component in another culture, ranging from its language and ethnicity to its current outlook and approach (Bateman, 2002). There is so much to learn for the professionals in hospitality sector. For example, ethnic culture is related to the origin of the culture of a region where its members either don’t get the chance to evolve with time or reject the process of evolution itself and remain content with their heritage Thomas, 1998).

The group of people with a different set of social and religious practice usually forms the Minority group in a culture. Any culture may have some latecomers in it, who would join with the baggage of their earlier culture. No doubt then, a culture is not static item and certainly not easy to comprehend (Hannigan, 1990) by a bookish approach to it, since there exists both covert and overt culture (Kluckhohn, 1949).

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