The relationship between the Kennedy’s administration and US intelligence was constructive and successful. Here we see that there were two important issues, i. e. detecting events before they unfolded and preventing policy intelligence consensus. Even though there was no real basis of the America Soviet confrontation in Cuba these didn’t prevent the intelligence from detecting the missiles. The intelligence community and the policy makers didn’t have to disagree in terms of political, personal or bureaucratic beliefs but they worked together.
This came as a result of Bay of Pigs fiasco, McCone’s decision to risk ridicule from political and bureaucratic fray contributed to the success of the intelligence. Sound analytical work by the intelligence on the small incoming information led to the success of its operation. This shows that a torrent of information mattered a lot. The Kennedy’s administration decision to blockade the Cuban waters was among the best decisions that he made. This blockade made the transportation of more missiles and construction materials to Cuba to stop.
The idea of building the bases in Cuban soil was as a result of; i)Khrushchev saw Kennedy as a weak president during the meeting in Vienna after failing to reach any consensus. ii) America had more nuclear weapons than Soviet. iii) The Turkey warheads that were pointed to Soviet. The United States with the help of the intelligence were able to broke an agreement. This prevented a major skirmish. The Vietnam war took place from 1965 to 1975 and it was also refereed to as Second Indochina War and in Vietnam it was called the American war.
It was fought by United States and Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Republic of Vietnam which was South Vietnam supported the United States. In 1964 the destroyer USS Maddox was patrolling the crew heard thumping noise which made the president to ask for power to attack Vietnam. After the death of a dozen American soldiers the United States decided to retaliate using air strikes. This air attack was known as Operation Rolling Thunder which was meant to booster the South Vietnamese morale.
Rolling thunder came to an end after millions of sorties were flown and more than a half million bombs had been dropped. The airbase and other facilities were then manned by United States Marines after its was established that it was risky to give the control to the South Vietnamese. By then the president of Vietnam was Thieu and the Vice President was Ky, more American solders were deployed into South Vietnam with some taking charge of the base. August 1965, Operation Star lite was the first major operation which was undertaken by the Americans destroying NLF stronghold.
The Operation Silver Bayonet was the major war that both sides participated with the North Vietnamese having major casualties. Americans then added their troops from 120,000 to 400,000 to enable them defeat both the North Vietnamese and the NLF. The Americans idea was to disable the logistical system from Cambodia and Laos but this came with many kinds of restrictions such as preventing a confrontation which may have led to superpower confrontation. This led to the decisions from Westmoreland that a large force could grind the enemy down and make them to surrender.
Then there was a confrontation between Marine Corps Commander Gen. Walt and Westmoreland’s about the attacking method. Gen. Walt believed that security of the villages was important. Westmoreland believed that the PAVN should be pushed away from the villages and attacked in the country side. At the end of the day MACV won and Westmorelands method of search and destroy was applied. The attack started which led to the retreat of PAVN/NLF, but the terrain and climate was not favorite for the Americans.
At the border a war named as Tet Offensive where the Americans based at A village called Khe Sanh. This point was used for surveillance and logistics. Here a large destruction took place by the US Marine destroying everywhere with bombs from their war planes to defend this village. This saw the retreat of the PAVN. This offensive left a lot of questions on the minds of many American citizens after they had been told that the war was about to be won. This led to the Defeat of US president Johnson by Senator McCarthy in the Hampshire Primary.
Vietnamization was the name given to the Nixon Doctrine that South Vietnamese army should be well equipped so to be able to defend their own nation. Nixon foreign policy was to make good relations with the Republic of China and Soviet Union. This led to the nuclear reduction by both Soviet Union and U. S. and a dialog with China. These two countries were supporting North Vietnam. This led to the retreat of US marines and leaving the South to be destroyed by the North. The most dramatic massacre was that of America Division which took place in My Lai village.
Here many people were raped, tortured and murdered. Gen. Calley who was the commander of this battalion was charged but later released,he was the only person who was charged. There were also other massacres about seven of them but they were hidden. Intelligence reports such as that of Gulf Of Tonkin which led to the US involvement in the war was false. The prediction of defeat was not shown to the public and also the US involvement towards the death of Ngo Dinh Diem and the heavy bombing of Laos in 1964 which was not supposed to take place.